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The First HTML Document

The First HTML Document

HTML - short for Hyper Text Markup Language - is a markup language. A markup language uses a set of markup tags. In HTML they are markup using HTML tags. So, basically there is a start tag and an end tag. Each tag will have a structure like this:
<starttag>Your contents goes here</starttag>
Your contents will go in between the tags. HTML tags always comes in pairs with few exceptions. Lets take a look at this example and then we'll explain all about the tags.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
 <head>
  <title>Your Title</title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <h1>Heading 1</h1>
  <p>This is a paragraph. It can be in <strong>Bold</strong> or <em>emphasis</em>. HTML is cool</p>
 </body>
</html>

Enter the above code in your text editor and save as - say first.html file. Try to identify the tags in the above html document and note them down. Open this file in your browser and you'll see something like this:



 If you have tried to identify the elements then let's break it one by one to you.

  1. The first line is the <!DOCTYPE html> this tag will tell the browser what type of document is being sent. Now, why this? The reason is HTML is now in version 5 - commonly known as HTML5. So, to identify if your site use HTML 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 you need to declare the <!DOCTYPE html> . In previous version the declaration of DOCTYPE is more complicated and the above declaration is for HTML5. 
  2.  The next line you see the <html> tag and also at the end of the line the </html> . This tells the browser about the start and end of an HTML document. All other tags should be inside the <html>...</html>  tag. When tags are present inside another tag, it is known as nesting
  3.  After that, you'll two prominent tags - <head>...</head> and <body>...</body> tags. The <head>...</head> is the head section, where you can put other tags like the <title>...</title> . Anything that goes inside the <head>...</head> is not visible in your browser except for the title. But you'll include stylesheets, JavaScripts and meta tags there. 
  4.  Inside the <body>...</body> tag, you'll have all your content to be displayed. In the above example you'll see the <h1>...</h1>  which gives the different heading for your html. There is also the <p>...</p> tag which defines a paragraph. By now you'll notice that the  <h1>...</h1> and <p>...</p> tags will create a new line and not joined together as in a sentence. 

Now, we'll introduce you to a new term in HTML called ELEMENT. So, what is an HTML Element? Well, anything between the tags - including the contents inside is called an HTML Element. So, you have the heading element, paragraph element, body element etc. There are two types of elements in HTML - a Block element and an Inline element. Back to the above example, you'll find that the  <strong>...</strong> tag does not break the line to a new paragraph, nor does  <em>...</em> . This is because only block elements will create new paragraph while inline elements will not. Try this second example to see the difference:

Now, go ahead and try to experiment with your new knowledge. Let us know in the comments below if you have any equerries.

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